Case Studies

Sonographer: Shoulder Tension & Pain

Name: Samantha Everett, Occupation: Sonographer


Rosie Maternity Hospital
Greeting patients and putting them at their ease. Scanning and discussing the ultrasound on the screen; this involves a great deal of sitting and also twisting and turning whilst manipulating the probe; following up with a written report on the computer. I suffered muscle tension in the shoulder of my scanning arm and pain in my neck and shoulders. I was referred to Occupational Health who recommended an ergonomic review. Read more »

Special Needs: Cerebral Palsy

Name: David Boyle; Occupation: Student; part-time radio presenter (rock music)


Cerebral Palsy with increased tone, more marked on the right side. David has tight hip adductors, which necessitates the use of a wheelchair because walking is so difficult. David sits sacrally when in his wheelchair or on a conventional seat, with shoulders hunched, shoulder blades ‘winged’, chin protruding and cervical spine in excessive lordosis. David’s pelvis tends to pull obliquely to the right. David is not able to walk any distance. Read more »

Special Needs: Muscular Atrophy

Name: Ruby Neale; Occupation: Student



Ruby has muscular atrophy, which means that she has difficulty maintaining good posture, especially for a long time. Sitting in a classroom chair puts her in such a poor posture that she is at risk of developing kyphotic/spinal deformities. In her classroom posture, Ruby’s shoulders are hunched, her neck is hyperextended, and her chin protrudes in order to see and perform her work. Her spine is curved into a ‘C’ shape with a flattened lumbar curve. She suffers from fatigue. While sitting, functional tasks are difficult to perform. Her thoracic function is impaired because her chest is collapsed onto her abdomen, restricting the action of the diaphragm as well as the action of the ribs.  Read more »

Special Needs: Spastic Quadriplegia Cerebral Palsy

Name: Eamon Hohn, Occupation: School student


Spastic quadriplegia cerebral palsy. Eamon’s condition is moderate to severe. He has some spasticity with increased extensor tone. There is a tendency for his pelvis and trunk to rotate obliquely with a drop to the left side, which tends to make him slide off a conventional seat. Eamon experiences some restriction in the activities he would like to undertake but determinedly states that he is normal and that his biggest problem as ‘other peoples’ attitudes’. Read more »

Special Needs: S. E. Dysplasia Cogenita

Name: Patrick Tinney, Occupation: Student



Patrick’s ability to perform activities is affected by his condition: sydolo epiphyseal dysplasia congenita. Some of his joints are malformed, and he has shortening of his limbs and his spine. He has limitation of shoulder movement and upper thoracic restriction. Usually confined to his electric wheelchair, which is very cumbersome in the schoolroom, he cannot turn to look at the board and is confined to the position his wheelchair is in when he stops it. Read more »